The Biferno is the only river entirely located in Molise. In ancient times it was called Tifernus. It begins after Ponte della Fiumara and goes through the region receiving 45 affluents. Its hydrographic basin is 1320 sq km wide.
The Biferno River, named lu Bufiern or u’Bfiern in the local dialect, has a torrential stream. Floods are strictly connected with rainfall pattern, a condition determined by several factors: tributaries directly coming from the valley’s slopes and poor permeability of the ground. This is the low part of the Biferno, featuring a slow stream and a thick riparian flora. This environment is an island of natural vegetation located in a landscape of vast cultures, towns, roads, junkyards, quarries and industrial areas. The predominant species of flora are willows and poplars, which make in some places thick gallery forests, where many birds find a home. Moreover, two species of community interest, the water turtle and the Hermann’s Tortoise, are present.
The area between the Cigno confluence and the mouth is considered a Zone of Special Protection, a place where both the river and sea environment get in touch, with the consequential vegetational aspects. This site, in particular, shows a high number of typical habitats of the coastal environment with a good level of preservation and representation. It’s a safe harbor for many birds species and the river habitat, and is important for the ecology of the Pond Turtle.